In natural theologyadaptation was interpreted as the work of a deity and as evidence for the existence of God. Pangloss  is a parody of this optimistic idea, and David Hume also argued against design.
Extinction and Coextinction If a population cannot move or change sufficiently to preserve its long-term viability, then obviously, it will become extinct, at least in that locale. Given enough genetic change, as well as specific demographic conditions, an adaptation may be enough to bring a population back from the brink of extinction in a process called evolutionary rescue.
Over a longer period of time, some people are better able to reproduce at high altitudes than others. Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby an organism becomes better able to live in its habitat or habitats. The main constraint, over which there has been much debate, is the requirement that each genetic and phenotypic change during evolution should be relatively small, because developmental systems are so complex and interlinked.
Much of the problem comes from our upright bipedal stance, without which our pelvis could be shaped more suitably for birth.
As content moves away from notions of a single, stable source, and an identifiable author, and towards an era of transmedia creation by multiple entities and media conglomerates it is the biological meaning of the word which would appear to have greater relevance to more contemporary notions of adaptation, namely: Some plant seeds known to be many centuries old are still viable and have been germinated.
In a media context, adaptation is defined as: An individual might be a resident or a vagrant, mated or unmated, or high or low in a pecking order, all factors that strongly affect its fitness. Such texts were also often judged on the misunderstood assumption that the goal of the adaptation was simply one of replication, rather than other motivations such as interrogation, reinvention, or exploration .
Sergej Khakimullin To survive and reproduce, all living organisms must adjust to conditions imposed on them by their environments. Article originally translated by Alain Piette and Bert Cardullo. Physiological adaptations permit the organism to perform special functions such as making venomsecreting slimeand phototropismbut also involve more general functions such as growth and developmenttemperature regulationionic balance and other aspects of homeostasis.
Conformity between an organism and its environment constitutes what biologists call adaptation. While gleaning tiny insects from tree leaves during the day, a bird remains alert for diurnal predators like hawks.
However, as previously stated, there is always a trade-off. John Hopkins University Press, Much like a biological organism, the field of Adaptation Theory is also constantly evolving in response to changes in its environment.
Here the risk to life is counterbalanced by the necessity for reproduction. Spandrel biology and Vestigiality Some traits do not appear to be adaptive, that is, they have a neutral or deleterious effect on fitness in the current environment.
The ability to acclimatize is an adaptation, but the acclimatization itself is not. Prey that are better able to escape from their predators, or hosts that can better resist infection by parasites, will enjoy a fitness advantage.
Accordingly, adaptations from literature to film and other media such as comic books and animation have often been branded in derogatory terms implying sacrilege, theft, impurity, dilution, and failure to preserve the integrity of the source . Selection pressures pull in different directions, and the adaptation that results is some kind of compromise.
The extent to which a phenotype fits its local ecological niche. Such mimicry does not need to be perfect to improve the survival of the palatable species. The classic example is the ear ossicles of mammalswhich we know from paleontological and embryological evidence originated in the upper and lower jaws and the hyoid bone of their synapsid ancestors, and further back still were part of the gill arches of early fish.
For instance, it is likely that bird feathers were initially important for temperature regulation, rather than for flying. A given trait can also be "preadapted" if it was formerly adaptive under some prior set of conditions now gone but is later co-opted as the basis of a new adaptation under some new environmental conditions.
Researchers can sometimes test this through a reciprocal transplant. Neanderthals had a similar problem. Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance  Consider the antlers of the Irish elkoften supposed to be far too large; in deer antler size has an allometric relationship to body size.
Indeed, most species are probably evolving rapidly just to maintain a given current level of adaptation in the face of a continually deteriorating environment. Acclimatization describes automatic physiological adjustments during life;  learning means improvement in behavioral performance during life.An adaptation can be structural, meaning it is a physical part of the organism.
An adaptation can also be behavioral, affecting the way an organism acts. An example of a structural adaptation is the way some plants have adapted to life in the desert.
Introduction to Fermentation Genetically modified.
Escherichia coli. have been chosen as the host organism for each of the co-proteins to be produced. Each strain of. E. coli. will contain a different gene that is responsible for producing Gene Cloning and DNA analysis, 4thth ed., Blackwell.
Before Darwin, adaptation was seen as a fixed relationship between an organism and its habitat. It was not appreciated that as the climate changed, so did the habitat; and as the habitat changed, so did the biota. Conformity between an organism and its environment constitutes what biologists call adaptation.
Biotic and Abiotic Environments Plants and animals have adapted to their environments genetically and by means of physiological, behavioral, or developmental flexibility, including both instinctive behavior and learning.
Much like a biological organism, the field of Adaptation Theory is also constantly evolving in response to changes in its environment.
Robert Stam, “Introduction: The Theory and Practice of Adaptation”, in Literature and Film: The Chicago School of Media Theory. An Introduction and an Analysis of the Organism Adaptation PAGES 3. WORDS 2, View Full Essay. More essays like this: adjustment by organism, animal sense organs, organism adaptation.
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