Much of this work concerns rape and sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and other crimes against women that were largely neglected until feminists began writing about them in the s Griffin, As this scenario suggests, being labeled deviant can make it difficult to avoid a continued life of deviance.
When a student cheats on a test and receives a failing grade for the course, the rest of the class learns that cheating is wrong and will not be tolerated.
The rich get richer and the poor get prison: More specifically, Spencer recognized three functional needs or prerequisites that produce selection pressures: A third focus concerns the gender difference in serious crime, as women and girls are much less likely than men and boys to engage in violence and to commit serious property crimes such as burglary and motor vehicle theft.
Many African tribal societies seemed to fit this neat model rather well, although Africanistssuch as Paul Richardsalso argued that Fortes and Evans-Pritchard had deliberately downplayed internal contradictions and overemphasized the stability of the local lineage systems and their significance for the organization of society.
These are functional in the sense that they assist society in operating  and fulfilling its functional needs so that society runs smoothly.
Labeling theory also asks whether some people and behaviors are indeed more likely than others to acquire a deviant label. What are any two assumptions of feminist perspectives on deviance and crime?
Because Merton developed his strain theory in the aftermath of the Great Depression, in which the labor and socialist movements had been quite active, it is not surprising that he thought of rebellion as a logical adaptation of the poor to their lack of economic success.
In particular, it asserts that nonlegal factors such as appearance, race, and social class affect how often official labeling occurs.
The value of quantitative analysis for a critical understanding of crime and society. Merton states that by recognizing and examining the dysfunctional aspects of society we can explain the development and persistence of alternatives.
Social structure and anomie. How does community context matter? He did not account for those parts of the system that might have tendencies to mal-integration.
Sociologists who apply this theory study social structure and social function. These explanations also blame street crime by the poor on the economic deprivation and inequality in which they live rather than on any moral failings of the poor.
As many scholars have noted, all institutions are subsumed under kinship organization,   but, with increasing population both in terms of sheer numbers and densityproblems emerge with regard to feeding individuals, creating new forms of organization—consider the emergent division of labour—coordinating and controlling various differentiated social units, and developing systems of resource distribution.
He said that they also experience anomie, or feelings of being disconnected from society, which can occur when people do not have access to the institutionalized means to achieve their goals. Gender socialization helps explain why females commit less serious crime than males.
Law of three stages Auguste Comtethe "Father of Positivism ", pointed out the need to keep society unified as many traditions were diminishing. What works for children, offenders, victims and places. Girls, women, and crime. Justice Quarterly, 26, — He was the first person to coin the term sociology.
The more we believe in these norms, the less we deviate. Merton calls this adaptation innovation. Symbolic Interactionist Explanations Because symbolic interactionism focuses on the means people gain from their social interaction, symbolic interactionist explanations attribute deviance to various aspects of the social interaction and social processes that normal individuals experience.
Consequently, there is a social dysfunction referred to as any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society. For example, some live in neighborhoods where organized crime is dominant and will get involved in such crime; others live in neighborhoods rampant with drug use and will start using drugs themselves.
This adaptation does not involve deviant behavior but is a logical response to the strain poor people experience. Faced with strain, some poor people continue to value economic success but come up with new means of achieving it.
Another criticism describes the ontological argument that society cannot have "needs" as a human being does, and even if society does have needs they need not be met.
Hirschi outlined four types of bonds to conventional social institutions: Many studies find that youths with weaker bonds to their parents and schools are more likely to be deviant. Jeffrey Alexander sees functionalism as a broad school rather than a specific method or system, such as Parsons, who is capable of taking equilibrium stability as a reference-point rather than assumption and treats structural differentiation as a major form of social change.
American Sociological Review, 3, — In one sense, an individual can be seen to be a "composition"  of the roles he inhabits.mint-body.com Functionalist Perspective: (a)How do Functionalists explain deviance?-Robert Merton's term for the strain risen when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a "cultural goal", but withholds from some.
Structural Functional Theory Another framework sociologists use to understand the world is the structural functional theory.
Its central idea is that society is a complex unit, made up of interrelated parts. Deviance: Functionalist Explanations 2 It must be recognised that Durkheim’s work as an individual does not represent the totality of functionalist belief and equally the totality of functionalist belief does not recognise necessarily all that Durkheim wrote.
Functionalists focus on the source of deviance in the nature of society rather than biological and psychological explanations. Every functionalist agrees that social control mechanisms e.
g. the police are necessary to keep deviance in check and therefore protecting social order. Functionalist Approach • Rather than starting with the individual as with biological and psychological theories, the functionalist analysis of deviance starts begins with society as a whole.
7. Crime as Inevitable • Durkheim argued that crime is an inevitable and normal aspect of social life. Introduction: Sociologists’ concern with the study of deviance, like many other ideas, issues and concepts, can be traced back to the thinking of Emile Durkheim.
But perhaps now we should ask whether the functionalist analysis is still of value to sociologists.Download